‘You have sold your soul to Satan for fourpence!’

CH Spurgeon preaching at the Surrey Gardens Music Hall, Newington

The superiority of live preaching, as opposed to watching a video, is illustrated powerfully when it comes to charismatic gifts. CH Spurgeon, although he declared himself to be a cessationist, powerfully exercised what many pastors believe Paul describes as a ‘word of knowledge’ (see 1 Cor 12). In Spurgeon’s experience these seemed to happen without any forethought, but were sudden declarations of knowledge during his preaching. Most preachers will know something of this though not usually to the degree of accuracy we’re about to consider. Frankly, you’d expect this story to appear in a history of early Pentecostalism. Spurgeon writes, 

‘There were many instances of remarkable conversions at the Music Hall. One especially was so singular that I have often related it as a proof that God sometimes guides His servants to say what they would themselves never have thought of uttering, in order that He may bless the hearer for whom the message is personally intended. 

‘You have sold your soul to Satan for fourpence!’
‘While preaching in the hall, on one occasion, I deliberately pointed to a man in the midst of the crowd, and said, “There is a man sitting there, who is a shoemaker ; he keeps his shop open on Sundays, it was open last Sabbath morning, he took ninepence, and there was fourpence profit out of it; his soul is sold to Satan for fourpence!”’

The shoe seller tells the story from his side
Spurgeon continues, ‘A city missionary, when going his rounds, met with this man, and seeing that he was reading one of my sermons, he asked the question, “Do you know Mr. Spurgeon?” 
“Yes,” replied the man, “I have every reason to know him, I have been to hear him; and, under his preaching, by God’s grace I have become a new creature in Christ Jesus. Shall I tell you how it happened? 
I went to the Music Hall, and took my seat in the middle of the place. Mr. Spurgeon looked at me as if he knew me, and in his sermon he pointed to me, and told the congregation that I was a shoemaker, and that I kept my shop open on Sundays. And I did, sir.”

Stunning accuracy
“I should not have minded that, but he also said that I took ninepence the Sunday before, and that there was fourpence profit out of it. I did take ninepence that day, and fourpence was just the profit. But how he should know that, I could not tell. Then it struck me that it was God who had spoken to my soul through him, so I shut up my shop the next Sunday. At first, I was afraid to go again to hear him, lest he should tell the people more about me, but afterwards I went, and the Lord met with me, and saved my soul.”’ [i]

As we gradually return to live preaching after the COVID lockdown, may we aspire to the heights of Spurgeon’s charismatic cessationism! 

More next time…
[i] CHS, The Early Years (1985 edition Edinburgh:Banner), p531-2
To read other articles about Spurgeon’s charismatic tendencies click here
To read the first article in this series on CH Spurgeon click here

©2020 Lex Loizides / Church History Review

George Orwell on Communism, Fascism, and the plight of the poor

George Orwell – The Road to Wigan Pier


George Orwell – The Road to Wigan Pier (Book Review)
I should have read this book years ago but, in the current climate where clear thinking is so needed, this 1937 semi-autobiographical, semi-sociological work seems uncannily relevant. Spoiler Alert: Orwell very strongly criticises (and mocks) the language and the alienating aspects of strident left-wing activism while supporting its core values of justice and liberty. 

He opens with superb but harrowing descriptions of life as a lodger in shared housing in the depressed North of England between the wars, and then of several trips into the coal mines to get a sense of working conditions. These high definition descriptions are utterly compelling and shocking. Our empathy and humanity is aroused and fortified. It’s impossible not to think of so many of our current workers who work and live in such similar conditions, nearly one hundred years after Orwell wrote.

There are some excellent insights into class identity, because Orwell, a plummy-accented Etonian, finds it difficult to remove himself from the target of socialist critique of ‘bourgeois ideology, manners etc’. This even though he (as a ‘sinking lower middle-class man who has never worked with his hands’) supports the cause of the working man. He continually finds his humane impulse towards the poor, and his desire to help a coherent movement emerge to address their needs, frustrated by the hackneyed slogans of Marxist propaganda.

Yet fascism must be resisted – gaining ground as it was with terrifying ease across Europe in the 1930s – and, he argues, socialism must become less repellant in order to attract people whose sympathies and sense of decency would point in that direction, whatever their background: ‘Throughout left-wing thought and writing…there runs an anti-genteel tradition, a persistent and often very stupid gibing at genteel mannerisms and genteel loyalties (or, in Communist jargon, ‘bourgeois values’). It is largely humbug…but it does major harm, because it allows a minor issue to block a major one. It directs attention away from the central fact that poverty is poverty, whether the tool you work with is a pick-axe or a fountain pen…For what I am worth it would be better to get me in on the Socialist side than to turn me into a Fascist. But if you are constantly bullying me about my ‘bourgeois ideology’…you will only succeed in antagonizing me. For you are telling me either that I am inherently useless or that I ought to alter myself in some way that is beyond my power. 201

On Dignity and Indignity. One miner he go to know suffered a debilitating injury as a result of a mining accident (‘Health and Safety’? What ‘Health and Safety’?). This man received a small allowance from the company but, Orwell notes, the man had to spend half a day each week, waiting at the company office to receive his pittance in cash: ‘This business of petty inconvenience and indignity, of being kept waiting about, of having to do everything at other people’s convenience, is inherent in working-class life. A thousand influences constantly press a working man down into a passive role.’ 43
By contrast: ‘A person of bourgeois origin goes through life with some expectation of getting what he wants, within reasonable limits. Hence the fact that in times of stress ‘educated’ people tend to come to the front; they are no more gifted than the others and their ‘education’ is generally quite useless in itself, but they are accustomed to a certain amount of deference and consequently have the cheek necessary to a commander.’ 44

Good sense in the midst of poverty: In England, at least, there was no political assault on the working-class family: ‘A working man does not disintegrate under the strain of poverty as a middle-class person does. Take, for instance, the fact that the working class think nothing of getting married on the dole [receiving state benefits]. It annoys the old ladies in Brighton, but it is a proof of their essential good sense; they realize that losing your job does not mean that you cease to be a human being…Families are impoverished, but the family-system has not broken up. 78 

Humour: ‘In a Lancashire cotton-town you could probably go for months on end without once hearing an ‘educated’ accent, whereas there can hardly be a town in the South of England where you could throw a brick without hitting the niece of a bishop.’ 102

On the instant gentrification of lower middle-class Europeans emigres: ‘It was this that explained the attraction of India (more recently Kenya, Nigeria etc) for the lower-upper-middle class. The people…went there because in India, with cheap horses, free shooting, and hordes of black servants, it was so easy to play at being a gentleman.’ 108

On the servility and intimidation of the poor: ‘During the past dozen years the English working class have grown servile with a rather horrifying rapidity. It was bound to happen, for the frightful weapon of unemployment has cowed them. ‘Before the war [WW1] their economic position was comparatively strong, for though there was no dole [state benefits] to fall back upon, there was not much unemployment…A man did not see ruin staring him in the face every time he cheeked a ‘toff’, and naturally he did cheek a ‘toff’.’ 111

George Orwell at the BBC. Pic credit: BBC

On Empire, Imperialism, and oppression: ‘I was in the Indian [Burmese, now Malaysia] Police five years, and by the end of that time I hated the imperialism I was serving with a bitterness which I probably cannot make clear…It is not possible to be a part of such a system without recognizing it as an unjustifiable tyranny. Even the thickest-skinned Anglo-Indian [by which I think he means a white Brit born there] is aware of this. Every ‘native’ face he sees in the street brings home to him his monstrous intrusion…The truth is that no modern man, in his heart of hearts, believes that it is right to invade a foreign country and hold the population down by force. Foreign oppression is a much more obvious, understandable evil that economic oppression…All over India there are Englishmen who secretly loathe the system of which they are a part; and just occasionally, when they are quite certain of being in the right company, their hidden bitterness overflows. … Not only were we [the Burmese Police, judicial system] hanging people and putting them in jail and so forth; we were doing it in the capacity of unwanted foreign invaders. The Burmese themselves never really recognized our jurisdiction…For five years I had been part of an oppressive system, and it had left me with a bad conscience…I was conscious of an immense weight of guilt that I had got to expiate…I [therefore] had reduced everything to the simple theory that the oppressed are always right and the oppressors are always wrong: a mistaken theory, but the natural result of being one of the oppressors yourself.’ 126-130

On the alarmingly sudden rise of tyrants: ‘Just how soon the pinch will come it is difficult to say; it depends, probably, upon events in Europe; but it may be that within two years, or even a year we shall have reached the decisive moment [He was writing in 1937. WW2 did indeed break in 1939]. That will also be the moment when every person with any brains or any decency will know in his bones that he ought to be on the Socialist side…It is doubtful whether a…heavy dragoon of Mosley’s stamp [Mosley, a British fascist and supporter of Hitler] would ever be much more than a joke to the majority of English people; though even Mosley will bear watching, for experience shows (eg. the careers of Hitler, Napoleon III) that to a political climber it is sometimes an advantage not to be taken too seriously at the beginning of his career…’ 186 Chilling stuff.

On how fascism rose so swiftly in the ‘30s: Fascism draws its strength from the good as well as the bad varieties of conservatism. To anyone with a feeling or tradition and for discipline it comes with its appeal ready-made. Probably it is very easy, when you have had a bellyful of the more tactless kind of Socialist propaganda, to see Fascism as the last line of defence of all that is good in European civilization…[It is] partly due to the mistaken Communist tactic of sabotaging democracy, i.e. sawing off the branch you are sitting on…As a result Fascism…has been able to pose as the upholder of the European tradition, and to appeal to Christian belief, to patriotism, and to the military virtues. It is far worse than useless to write Fascism off as ‘mass sadism’, or some easy phrase of that kind. If you pretend that it is merely an aberration which will presently pass off of its own accord, you are dreaming a dream from which you will awake when somebody coshes you with a rubber truncheon.’ 188

Orwell’s conclusion: ‘Justice and liberty! Those are the words that have got to ring like a bugle across the world.’ 190

You can see, as I did, the relevance of much of this surprising book. Not one chapter is wasted or irrelevant. Not all are equally relevant of course – all chapters are equal, but some chapters are more equal than others – but as a stimulant to clear thinking, it’s well worth reading, even if you land in a different place to Orwell.

©2020 Lex Loizides

Spurgeon Preaches in his Sleep

Thinks: ‘Yoh! What would I have done without my wife?’ The young CH Spurgeon

After CH Spurgeon’s death his wife Susannah completed his autobiography. Her perspective adds to the already fulsome account Charles had written. In the following passage she relates what can only be described as supernatural phenomena. It’s a one-off to be sure and, according to her, completely authentic. 

Text Perplexed
She writes: An extraordinary incident occurred in this early period of our history. One Saturday evening, my dear husband was deeply perplexed by the difficulties presented by a text on which he desired to preach the next morning. It was in Psalm cx. 3 ; “Thy people shall be willing in the day of Thy power, in the beauties of holiness from the womb of the morning Thou hast the dew of thy youth” and, with his usual painstaking preparation, he consulted all the commentaries he then possessed, seeking light from the Holy Spirit upon their words and his own thoughts but, as it seemed, in vain. 

I was as much distressed as he was, but I could not help him in such an emergency. At least, I thought I could not, but the Lord had a great favour in store for me, and used me to deliver His servant out of his serious embarrassment. He sat up very late, and was utterly worn out and dispirited, for all his efforts to get at the heart of the text were unavailing. I advised him to retire to rest, and soothed him by suggesting that, if he would try to sleep then, he would probably in the morning feel quite refreshed, and able to study to better purpose. “If I go to sleep now, wifey, will you wake me very early, so that I may have plenty of time to prepare?” With my loving assurance that I would watch the time for him, and call him soon enough, he was satisfied and, like a trusting, tired child, he laid his head upon the pillow, and slept soundly and sweetly at once. 

Young Men Shall Dream Dreams
By-and-by, a wonderful thing happened. During the first dawning hours of the Sabbath, I heard him talking in his sleep, and roused myself to listen attentively. Soon, I realised that he was going over the subject of the verse which had been so obscure to him, and was giving a clear and distinct exposition of its meaning, with much force and freshness. I set myself, with almost trembling joy, to understand and follow all that he was saying, for I knew that, if I could but seize and remember the salient points of the discourse, he would have no difficulty in developing and enlarging upon them.
Never preacher had a more eager and anxious hearer! What if I should let the precious words slip? I had no means at hand of “taking notes,” so, like Nehemiah, “I prayed to the God of Heaven,” and asked that I might receive and retain the thoughts which He had given to His servant in his sleep, and which were so singularly entrusted to my keeping. 

I overslept!
As I lay, repeating over and over again the chief points I wished to remember, my happiness was very great in anticipation of his surprise and delight on awaking; but I had kept vigil so long, cherishing my joy, that I must have been overcome with slumber just when the usual time for rising came, for he awoke with a frightened start, and seeing the tell-tale clock, said, “Oh, wifey, you said you would wake me very early, and now see the time! Oh, why did you let me sleep? What shall I do? What shall I do?”
“Listen, beloved,” I answered; and I told him all I had heard. “Why! that’s just what I wanted,” he exclaimed, “that is the true explanation of the whole verse! And you say I preached it in my sleep!” “It is wonderful,” he repeated again and again, and we both praised the Lord for so remarkable a manifestation of His power and love. 

Delivered!
Joyfully my dear one went down to his study, and prepared this God-given sermon, and it was delivered that same morning, April 13, 1856, at New Park Street Chapel. It can be found and read in Vol. II. of the sermons (No. 74), and its opening paragraph gives the dear preacher’s own account of the difficulty he experienced in dealing with the text. Naturally, he refrained from telling the congregation the  special details which I have here recorded.[i]
[You can read that very sermon here]

To read Spurgeon the Charismatic #1 click here
To read the first article in the series on CH Spurgeon click here

[i] CHS, The Early Years (1985 edition Edinburgh:Banner), p419
©2020 Lex Loizides / Church History Review

Introducing Simeon Zahl

Simeon Zahl’s new book is The Holy Spirit and Christian Experience (OUP) photo: Twitter @simeonzahl

As the Church History Review website approaches three quarters of a million views, I think it relevant to introduce someone who may not be known to you. He certainly was unknown to me just a short while ago. His name is Simeon Zahl (anyone with a Z in their surname is of interest). Simeon earned his doctorate in theology at Cambridge, was a research fellow at Oxford, an Assistant Professor of Systematic Theology at the University of Nottingham, and is now back at Cambridge as Senior Lecturer in Christian Theology.

I have not been able to secure a copy of the book but I did listen with great interest to this lecture by him on the role of emotion in Protestant Christianity. He doesn’t appear to be a preacher, as such, but every phrase of this superbly written lecture is worth hearing and enjoying. If you’re a Christian leader and you’ve been tempted to adopt the false dichotomy where the ‘charismatic’ and more emotional aspects of Christianity need to be downplayed so that something more intellectually rigorous can take its place then listen to this message. You need abandon neither. That Zahn brings his quiet intellectual rigour to the defence of a faith that brings joy, comfort, and enthusiasm is deeply refreshing. I hope you enjoy this message, and please feel free to leave a comment below.

You can follow Simeon Zahl on Twitter @simeonzahl
©2020 Lex Loizides / Church History Review

CH Spurgeon’s amazing Word of Knowledge

CH Spurgeon Aged 23

Spurgeon the Charismatic Part 3
In 1 Corinthians 12 Paul gives the church an extensive (though not exhaustive) list of spiritual gifts. These gifts are given for the common good of the church, to build her up, and strengthen her. They are given by a God who speaks, in contrast to the ‘mute idols’ the Corinthians used to worship (see verse 2). 

And these are gifts we are to eagerly pursue (cf 1 Cor 14.1). One of these gifts is the ‘word of knowledge’. Here’s Paul: ‘For to one is given the word of wisdom through the Spirit, and to another the word of knowledge according to the same Spirit; to another faith by the same Spirit, and to another gifts of healing by the one Spirit, and to another the effecting of miracles.’ (1 Cor 12.8-10)

It is my contention, in agreement with a host of biblical teachers and scholars, that the ‘word of knowledge’ is not the accumulation of biblical knowledge (excellent though that is) but a manifestation of the Holy Spirit whereby knowledge or information is supernaturally given that reveals that God knows the secrets of our hearts, and even the details of our lives, by those who would otherwise not know it. For example, when Jesus is speaking with the Samaritan woman at the well in John 4. He asks her to call her husband, and she closes that uncomfortable line of enquiry by stating the fact that she doesn’t have a husband. Jesus then reveals knowledge about her that he has received ‘supernaturally’, as it were. That is generally understood to be an example of a ‘word of knowledge’. 

‘You have a bottle of gin in your pocket!’
CH Spurgeon, even though he considered himself to be a ‘cessationist’ was certainly a man full of the Holy Spirit, and who welcomed the activity of the Spirit as we’ve already seen. He also was a man who, from time to time, operated in this particular gift of the Spirit, the word of knowledge. Here is one superb example of this gift being exercised. He writes:

‘Another singular conversion, wrought at New Park Street, was that of a man who had been accustomed to go to a gin-palace to fetch in gin for his Sunday evening’s drinking. He saw a crowd round the door of the chapel, so he looked in, and forced his way to the top of the gallery stairs. Just then, I turned in the direction where he stood. I do not know why I did so, but I remarked that there might be a man in the gallery who had come in with no very good motive, for even then he had a gin-bottle in his pocket. The singularity of the expression struck the man, and being startled because the preacher so exactly described him, he listened attentively to the warnings which followed. The Word reached his heart, the grace of God met with him, he became converted, and soon was walking humbly in the fear of God.’ [ii]

Did these incredible gifts from God suddenly cease? The evidence from Spurgeon’s own ministry suggest not. And, if you’re still uncertain about the theology of it all, does it really matter whether you take a stand for or against those who either use these gifts well or not? Shouldn’t we rather go back to our primary source, the Scriptures, and ‘Pursue love, yet desire earnestly spiritual gifts’? (1 Cor 14.1)

For the amazing story of Spurgeon preaching in his sleep, and then preaching it in the pulpit click here
To read Spurgeon the Charismatic #1 click here
To read the first article in the series on CH Spurgeon click here
[ii] CHS, The Early Years, 1985 edition, Edinburgh: Banner of Truth, p266

©2020 Lex Loizides / Church History Review

Spurgeon the Charismatic Part 2

CH Spurgeon was open to the power of the Holy Spirit

The great Christian preacher CH Spurgeon was not afraid of the power of the Holy Spirit. He not only encouraged other believers to privately pursue the Spirit but welcomed His presence in their public gatherings. 

He describes moments where, in his words, the Spirit of God was manifest among them as they prayed. They sat dumb-struck with awe at the power of God. And the result? A blessing ‘coming down’ on them, and hundreds, and then thousands, flocking to hear the gospel preached and to experience the love of God in the heart of the city.

Reflecting on some extraordinary gatherings when he first arrived in London Spurgeon wrote, 

The Holy Spirit overshadowing church meetings
When I came to New Park Street Chapel (1854), it was but a mere handful of people to whom I first preached (about 200) yet I can never forget how earnestly they prayed. Sometimes, they seemed to plead as though they could really see the Angel of the covenant present with them, and as if they must have a blessing from Him. More than once, we were all so awe-struck with the solemnity of the meeting, that we sat silent for some moments while the Lord’s power appeared to overshadow us; and all I could do on such occasions was to pronounce the Benediction, and say, ‘Dear friends, we have had the Spirit of God here very manifestly to-night; let us go home, and take care not to lose His gracious influences.’ Then down came the blessing; the house was filled with hearers, and many souls were saved.[i]

To read an example of a very specific ‘word of knowledge’ that led to conversion, click here.
To read Spurgeon the Charismatic #1 click here
To read the first article in the series on CH Spurgeon click here
[i] CHS, The Early Years, (1985 edition Edinburgh: Banner, p263)
©2020 Lex Loizides / Church History Review

Spurgeon the Charismatic (Part 1)

Young CH Spurgeon

Saved by a butter-smeared sermon!
CH Spurgeon was one of the greatest Christian preachers in history; the ‘prince of preachers’. His weekly sermons were printed in pamphlet form and read by many thousands (25,000 sold each week in 1865)[1]. There are many stories of changed lives through these printed sermons, including one woman who was converted through reading the single page of a sermon that had been used to wrap some butter that she had purchased.[2]

Spurgeon joyfully retells these stories, and he was clear as to the source of his evangelistic influence: he was a man filled with the Holy Spirit. Spoiler Alert: CHS considered himself a cessationist. But as with all our great heroes of the Christian faith, the power of the Holy Spirit is deeply embedded in his story and his experience.

Words of Knowledge
His descriptions of his own words of knowledge (cf. 1 Cor 12.8) mid-sermon suggest a happy freeness in his spirit to follow the gift of the Holy Spirit. And with wonderful results. He writes, 

‘I could tell as many as a dozen similar cases in which I pointed at somebody in the hall without having the slightest knowledge of the person, or any idea that what I said was right, except that I believed I was moved by the Spirit to say it; and so striking has been my description, that the persons have gone away, and said to their friends, “Come, see a man that told me all things that ever I did. He must have been sent of God to my soul, or else he could not have described me so exactly.”‘ [3]

In the next few posts we’ll look at these cases and, I hope, be challenged afresh to ‘earnestly desire spiritual gifts’ as the Bible exhorts us.

To read about Spurgeon’s openness to the Holy Spirit click here
To read the first article in this series on CH Spurgeon click here

[1] https://christianhistoryinstitute.org/magazine/article/spurgeon-did-you-know/
[2] ibid
[3] CHS, The Early Years, (1985 edition Edinburgh: Banner, p532)

©2020 Lex Loizides / Church History Review

Blessed Isolation #8 The Survival of South Africa. Lessons from Chief Luthuli.

A South African Father
Chief Albert Luthuli was one of the guiding lights for the future peace of South Africa. His powerful autobiography Let My People Go tells not only his story, but the story of a people repeatedly subjugated by the callous and determined violence of the white South African regime. He led the banned ANC movement for fifteen years. Despite leading during the horror of state legislated violence and injustice, Luthuli achieved an amazing maturity and grace in his leadership which helped steer a broken country towards peace. He was awarded the Nobel Peace prize in 1960 following which the government continually restricted his movements until his death in 1967 in circumstances which seem suspicious.[i]

Cultural archaeology
As Christians, especially in culturally diverse contexts, it is critical that we to do a bit of ‘cultural archaeology’, a bit of historical digging. We need to find out how we got to where we are, why people feel as they do, and we are also likely to discover wisdom that can point the way forward. Historians delight in all of this, but Christians keen on ‘mission’ ought to be diligent in these things too. Albert Luthuli was radically shaped by his Christianity. He didn’t abandon his people or culture, but carried his Christian faith into the complex arena of withstanding the unrelenting injustice in the South Africa of just a few decades ago. By highlighting his Christian faith I hope to encourage all South African pastors and believers in South Africa, to discover (or rediscover) this incredibly important father-figure in our shared history. We can all sit at the feet of Albert Luthuli and learn a thing or two. The video has numerous quotes and the book has been reissued recently. Get yourself a copy and do some digging.

Let My People Go is available on Kindle, as well as in a new paperback edition.

[i] see Albert Luthuli, Robert Trent Vinson (Ohio Short Histories of Africa)

©2020 Lex Loizides / Church History Review

In Evangelism, just do a little thing

CH Spurgeon’ Autobiography reissued by the Banner of Truth Trust

In Evangelism, just do a little thing
I suppose the danger is that if we think we can’t make a significant impact, like bringing someone to the point of conversion, or something that seems powerful or meaningful, we tend to just back off. The small seems trivial, even superficial.
CH Spurgeon didn’t think so. At the age of sixteen, as a new believer in Christ, he wanted to make the most of every opportunity to somehow share his faith.
He writes, ‘The very first service which my youthful heart rendered to Christ was the placing of tracts in envelopes, and then sealing them up, that I might send them with the hope that God would bless them.’ [tract = small leaflet containing brief explanation/story/illustration of the gospel message. Note: this article is not about tracts, but more here.]

If Spurgeon had bumped into one of today’s believer he may well have been advised to stop doing something so superficial and apparently ‘non-relational’. But, as with most compassionate believers, Spurgeon wasn’t only giving information but actually trying to connect with people. He continues, ‘I well remember taking other tracts, and distributing them in certain districts of Newmarket, going from house to house, and telling, in humble language, the things of the kingdom of God. I might have done nothing for Christ if I had not been encouraged by finding myself able to do a little.’
Spurgeon went on to become one of Christianity’s most effective, and celebrated church-based evangelistic preachers.

Do those things you did at the beginning…
Writing of his earlier experiences he says, ‘ I could scarcely content myself even for five minutes without trying to do something for Christ. If I walked along the street, I must have a few tracts with me; if I went into a railway carriage, I must drop a tract out of the window; if I had a moment’s leisure, I must be upon my knees or at my Bible; if I were in company, I must turn the subject of conversation to Christ.’ He was sixteen years old. [i]
Happily for those around him Spurgeon refused to give up his youthful ways. Later in his journals we read that at age thirty-nine, ‘We have been for a drive to Lymington…I had a fine supply of tracts and sowed the region well.’ [ii]

Don’t despise the small opportunities you have to ‘sow’, whether inviting someone to Alpha, or to watch your church’s online service, or help a neighbour, or share an inspiring video on social media. Just do a little thing, and bring a blessing to your not-yet-convinced friends and folk around you.

[i] and prior quotes, CHS, The Early Years, (1973 edition Edinburgh: Banner of Truth, p156)
[ii] CHS, The Full Harvest, (1973, Edinburgh: Banner p228)

More next time…
To read the first article in this series on CH Spurgeon click here

©2020 Lex Loizides / Church History Review

Blessed Isolation #7 Learning to share the whole gospel, with CH Spurgeon

Is the gospel just an offer of forgiveness? Is there not a call to repent, to turn away from what’s wrong? How do we understand our responsibility to get the message out? Are we to be passive or active? And what are the joys of seeing people come to faith in Christ? Hearing several wonderful quotes from the book, I’m sure you’ll be inspired to speak up for the gospel.

The Soul Winner is available on Kindle
For more on CH Spurgeon click here
For a review and more quotes from this book click here
©2020 Lex Loizides / Church History Review

Blessed Isolation #6 Martyn Lloyd-Jones

When I first became a Christian I was introduced to some wonderful books and some great authors. One of the very best was Martyn Lloyd-Jones, the grumpy-looking Welshman who almost single-handedly revived interest in the English puritans and boosted the fortunes of a little publishing house called ‘The Banner of Truth’. I think Preachers and Preaching was my first Lloyd-Jones and after that I was hooked, reading all the published volumes of his brilliant Romans series, followed by this set on Ephesians. Brilliant stuff this. Good for your soul.

You can listen to some of Lloyd-Jones’ sermons here
For Lloyd-Jones on Revival and on Howell Harris’s massive influence on the Great Awakening click here

©2020 Lex Loizides / Church History Review

Blessed Isolation #5 Our need of the Spirit

For a variety of reasons many Christians are nervous of what Paul refers to as ‘demonstrations of the Spirit’s power’ (1 Cor 2.4). But isn’t it the case that if we want the gospel of Christ to win hearts around the world (and in our own towns and cities) we need the power of God to accompany the word of God? Has there ever been a time when we didn’t need the Spirit to apply the gospel to hearts and minds, or the power of God to set captives free? Check out today’s 4-minute video for more.

Power Evangelism by John Wimber is available on Kindle here
©2020 Lex Loizides / Church History Review

Blessed Isolation #4 On the Urgency of Sharing the Gospel

Many of us are spending more time on our computers and less time with people. But we still have opportunities to share our faith with respect, wisdom, and confidence.
Puritan Joseph Alleine was keen to share the gospel in his day and can, at the very least, inspire us to be more confident about sharing our faith today. (Recorded before the lockdown)

More on Joseph Alleine’s passion for souls here and here
Alleine’s book is available very cheaply on Kindle
©2020 Lex Loizides / Church History Review

Blessed Isolation #3 CS Lewis on Grief

The third in a series of very short videos which draw out gems from fantastic books. I hope you’ll feel encouraged to use any extra time you have to read good and challenging books.

More on CS Lewis’s life here
All CS Lewis articles on the CHR here
Enjoy, and feel free to share, comment, or make a request. More titles by CSL will follow.

©2020 Lex Loizides

Blessed Isolation #2 Heaven on Earth

The second in a series of very short videos which draw out gems from fantastic books.

More quotes from this wonderful book here and here
Enjoy, and feel free to leave a comment, recommendation, or request.
N.B. This was recorded before the lockdown in RSA.
©2020 Lex Loizides

Blessed Isolation #1 On Christian Contentment

The first in a series of very short videos which draw out gems from fantastic books.

More quotes from this excellent book here and here
Enjoy, and feel free to leave a comment, recommendation, or request.
N.B. This was recorded before the lockdown in RSA.
©2020 Lex Loizides

65 Years of Friendship by George Bizos

65 Years of Friendship by George Bizos

When I get a good book I try and make it last. When I get a great book it takes over and I don’t regret reading into the early hours of the next day. Like Bizos’ amazing autobiography, this is a great book.

George Bizos is South Africa’s most respected and most influential lawyer. Along with other legal experts like Arthur Chaskalson, and Bram Fischer, Bizos used his fine legal skills from the ‘50s onward not only to repeatedly attempt to restrain and frustrate the wickedness of the Apartheid Government but to actually keep Nelson Mandela and the other Rivonia trialists alive. South African history would have been very different if he had failed. It’s an amazing thing that the thirteen year old boy who came as a refugee fleeing Nazi-occupied Greece, and who for years couldn’t leave the country for fear the authorities would rescind his residence status, ended up defending the fathers of the nation, and became a key author of the South African Constitution.

This is a wonderful book, with the pace of a spy novel and the intricacy of a courtroom blockbuster. It’s a testimony to years of painstaking work that led finally to political freedom for the majority of South Africans. It’s also a testimony to life-long friendship through thick and thin.

If you’re South African you obviously want to learn your history, but if you have any aspirations to be a leader in South Africa whether in business, in church, in government, or in your local community you absolutely must, in my view, read about these heroes who have given so much for the future of the country. 

There’s an informative three minute video that highlights Bizos here
There’s a review of Bizos’ autobiography, An Odyssey to Freedom here

Some quotes: 

Speaking of his early meeting with Mandela: ‘He was proud and made no apologies for his blackness. He once described apartheid as a moral genocide – an attempt to exterminate an entire people’s self-respect; he was not prepared to bend his knee.’ 28

Quoting Greek thinker Pericles as an example of how to advance the cause of Africans in South Africa: ‘We decide or debate, carefully and in person, all matters of policy, and we hold, not that words and deeds go ill together, but that acts are foredoomed to failure when undertaken undiscussed. For we are noted for being at once most adventurous in action and most reflective beforehand.’ And after quoting Pericles he adds, ‘When I had finished, Nelson grinned. “That sounds just like what is needed here.”… The debates of the philosophers of Ancient Greece would permeate not only our discussions, but also our decision on legal strategy in the future.’ 74-75

On funding for the Treason Trial: ‘Christian Action in London took responsibility for fundraising and the Treason Trial Defence Fund was set up in South Africa to ensure that a proper trial could be conducted.’ 85

On Walter Sisulu: ‘Walter…grew up in a poor district of the Transkei and left school at sixteen to become a cowherd – but he had a brilliant mind. He was a short, pale man – his father, Victor Dickinson, was a white magistrate who had abandoned his two children and their Xhosa mother to move to Johannesburg. Walter would sometimes attend court to watch him preside, but his father never acknowledged him.’  133

On Oliver Tambo: ‘ Oliver Tambo played a key role as the leader of the ANC in exile. On a visit to the United States, he was told that the student leader of a multi-billionaire banker was leading the anti-apartheid campaign at her university. Oliver asked to see her. Within days of meeting her, her father’s bank announced that it would not extend the repayment period of a large loan to South Africa. Other banks followed suit. The rand lost more than half its value against foreign currencies.’ 184

On discussions during negotiations just prior to Mandela’s release, when NM was given a small cottage to live in: ‘His time here was such that when he built his home in Qunu after his release it was designed on the same floor plan. Nelson welcomed his many guests wearing suits and ties, his collared shirts perfectly starched. He would take his daily constitutional along the garden paths and sometimes I would join him for the more confidential of our conversations. We learnt only later that the flowers were bugged.’ 195

NM to Govt representatives during the negotiations: ‘the majority need the minority. We do not want to drive you into the sea.’ 197

On FW de Klerk: ‘In his speech after his release on 11 February 1989, Nelson had told the world that President FW de Klerk was “a man of integrity”. Not long afterwards, he confided in me that he was mistaken…there was no personal warmth between them… “He has sometimes very little idea of what democracy means”. When Nelson was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize jointly with De Klerk in 1993, he was not sure whether he should accept it. He felt that…he should not have to share it with a man who had spent most of his political life upholding apartheid. His hesitation was compounded by his personal difficulty with De Klerk’s lack of humility or self-reflection…’ [At the prize giving event] ‘Nelson expected De Klerk to acknowledge the immorality of apartheid and the suffering it has caused the majority of South Africans in his acceptance speech…Instead, De Klerk said only that ‘both sides had made mistakes’… ‘At a private dinner hosted by the Norwegian prime minister to honour the two laureates, Nelson’s patience finally snapped. Before the one hundred and fifty invited guests, he spoke off the cuff. In horrible detail he described the treatment of political prisoners on Robben Island, recounting an incident in which prison warders buried a man in the sand up to his head and urinated on him. He attacked the apartheid regime for the oppression of black people and for the murders committed by its squads. ‘What mistakes did we make when you were brutalising us and locking us up and banning us and not allowing us to vote?’ he asked angrily of De Klerk.’ 213-214

On the violence before the first election: ‘My message to those of you involved in this battle of brother against brother is this: Take your guns, knives and your pangas and throw them into the sea.’ 215

Nelson Mandela on Greece: ‘Greece is the mother of democracy and South Africa, its youngest daughter.’ 240

George Bizos – 65 Years of Friendship (Umuzi, Penguin Random House South Africa)

The Romance of Conversion – CH Spurgeon

Young Spurgeon
CH Spurgeon

What do we mean by ‘Preaching the Gospel’?
After an intense period of internal unease which Spurgeon frankly described as ‘conviction of sin’, he at last found peace. Having visited numerous churches where good, solid sermons were preached, but preached only to the Christian, he finally stumbled into a Primitive Methodist meeting and heard the gospel preached to the non-believer. Good Bible teachers may think they have preached the ‘gospel’ when they have merely expounded a passage of the Scriptures for the edification of the believer. That is not quite the same thing as would have been understood by figures like Spurgeon, Whitefield, or Hudson Taylor. Proclaiming the gospel generally meant declaring who Christ is, and what He has done, and would include the need for the ‘sinner’ to respond by repenting of sin and putting their faith in Christ. Preaching the gospel was generally understood as an evangelistic declaration to the non-believer (to that person who has not yet put their trust in Christ). The rest was often referred to merely as ‘preaching the whole counsel of God’.
CH Spurgeon was very clear about this distinction and emphasised the difference constantly. As we’ll see in future posts, one of the reasons the Metropolitan Tabernacle (the congregation Spurgeon led) grew to 5000 was because he was determined not to make the very mistake those wonderful Bible-believing churches had made when he was searching for God. Instead he preached the gospel faithfully week in and week out, sometimes preaching an exclusively evangelistic message, but usually dedicating a large section (often the final third) of his message to the non-Christian. The point is he did both. He addressed everyone in his audience. He always had an eye to connect with those who had not yet come to Christ, simply because he had personally experienced the difficulty of good expositions of biblical passages or themes but which were irrelevant to him prior to conversion. 

The Romance of Conversion
And he never lost the wonder of the grace of God expressed to him in his conversion. ‘Home, friends, health, wealth, comforts,’ he wrote, ‘all lost their lustre that day when He appeared, just as stars are hidden by the light of the sun. He was the only Lord and Giver of life’s best bliss, the one well of living water springing up unto everlasting life. As I saw Jesus on His cross before me, and as I mused upon His sufferings and death, methought I saw Him cast a look of love upon me; and then I looked at Him, and cried, “Jesu, lover of my soul, Let me to Thy bosom fly.”
He said, “Come,” and I flew to Him, and clasped Him; and when He let me go again, I wondered where my burden was. It was gone! There in the sepulchre it lay, and I felt light as air; like a winged sylph, I could fly over mountains of trouble and despair; and oh! what liberty and joy I had! I could leap with ecstasy, for I had much forgiven, and I was freed from sin. With the spouse in the Canticles [Song of Songs], I could say, “I found Him;” I, a lad, found the Lord of glory; I, a slave to sin, found the great Deliverer; I, the child of darkness, found the Light of life; I, the uttermost of the lost, found my Saviour and my God. [1]

Memorial Stone
In Bexhill-on-Sea in Sussex, when the church had completed its construction of a school hall, they laid a stone in memory of Spurgeon with this inscription:

HOW C. H. SPURGEON FOUND CHRIST.
“I looked to Him ;
He looked on me ;
And we were one for ever.”—C. H. S.
‘Look unto Me, and be ye saved, all the ends 0f the earth; for I am God, and there is none else.’ —Isaiah xlv. 22.  [2]

More next time…
To read the first article in this series on CH Spurgeon click here
To read an encouragement from CH Spurgeon to help you begin to tell others about Christ click here

[1] The Autobiography of Charles H Spurgeon, Vol 1. (1897) London: Passmore and Alabaster, p. 109-110
[2] ibid p.109

©2020 Lex Loizides / Church History Review

Introduction to the Greek New Testament by Dirk Jongkind

Dirk Jongkind’s Intro to the Tyndale House New Testament

An Introduction to the Greek New Testament by Dirk Jongkind
There is a certain delicious joy in discovering that our trust in the New Testament as an historically reliable text is based on scholarship that is obsessively precise, unashamedly pedantic, and ruthlessly honest. The soul sings for joy, and feeds freely and fully on clean healthy food. Such freedom-bestowing scholarship is characteristic of Dirk Jongkind and the team at Tyndale House in Cambridge. In fact, it was Jongkind’s academic rigour, his strictness when it came to the text of the New Testament, that first caused me to write to him, announcing myself as a ‘fan’ and asking if we could meet at the Lausanne Congress in 2010. Although we came from different church traditions (and he very much the scholar, and me very much the dufus) our excited, energetic conversation that day, and the next, and the next, was easily the highlight of the conference for me. Jongkind’s credentials are outstanding (see his Scribal Habits of Codex Sinaiticus) but in this Introduction he has given us a very accessible book on a complex and important subject.

Dirk Jongkind, Cambridge University

You don’t need to have any Greek at all to be able to enjoy this book. That’s because it’s not only an intro to the Tyndale House Edition of the NT (‘the most accurate edition of the Greek New Testament published so far’) but it’s also an outstanding introduction to the process of NT textual criticism itself. There are insights into how decisions are made in manuscript selection so that we get the most accurate text possible, as well as interesting sections on how to deal with variations.

We often hear it boldly stated that the NT has changed over the centuries and people have deliberately messed with the text to change its meaning. Jongkind writes, ’Another way of answering the reliability question is to look for signs of deliberate tampering with the text. People have claimed to have found these, but they have also had to admit that these are few and far between and do not occur on the scale and frequency that one might expect if there were an attempt to systematically change the text. The phenomenon that comes closest to deliberate alteration of the text is the cleaning up of the spelling that we encounter in the older manuscripts, which is at time rather rough.’ (p.22) Apparently Byzantine scribes in particular just couldn’t let bad spelling go uncorrected.

Another statement on reliability gives us the broader context in which variants emerge: ‘For most of the approximately 135,000 words of the New Testament, no decision has to be made – either because there is no variation or because the variation is found in a single manuscript, in a group of relatively unimportant manuscripts, or in a subset of late manuscripts.’ (p.65) Jongkind then outlines the criteria (external evidence, copying, and internal evidence) on which to make reliable decisions where one is necessary.

Much more could be said, but this 120-page gem will put some steel into you, and help you have yet more confidence in the reliability of the New Testament text. Many new translations into many languages will be based on the Tyndale House Edition, but even if you don’t read Greek, it is heartwarming to know that, behind the scenes, scholars like Jongkind are still working hard on every available text, and are still confirming that what we have in our hands when we pick up our Bible is fundamentally what was originally written. Feast on my friends! Feast on!

An Introduction to the Greek New Testament Produced at Tyndale House, Cambridge by Dirk Jongkind is published by Crossway Books.

©2020 Lex Loizides

The Conversion of CH Spurgeon

Young CH Spurgeon
Young Charles Hadden Spurgeon

Among the many great conversions of the 19th Century, CH Spurgeon’s was one of the most famous. He told and retold this story many times throughout his preaching career. And here is the fullest version of it in his own words. It is a feast. Grab a cup of tea, sit down and enjoy!

The general, and the effectual appeal of the Gospel
‘The general call of the gospel is like the sheet lightning we sometimes see on a summer’s evening — beautiful, grand, — but who ever heard of anything being struck by it? But the special call is the forked flash from heaven; it strikes somewhere. It is the arrow shot in between the joints of the harness. The call which saves is like that of Jesus, when He said, “Mary,” and she said unto Him, “Rabboni.” Can I not recollect the hour when He whispered my name, when He said in mine ear, “Come unto Me”! That was an effectual call; there was no resisting it. I know I laughed at religion; I despised, I abhorred it; but oh, that call!’ [i]

A chance meeting
‘I sometimes think I might have been in darkness and despair until now had it not been for the goodness of God in sending a snowstorm, one Sunday morning, while I was going to a certain place of worship. When I could go no further, I turned down a side street, and came to a little Primitive Methodist Chapel. In that chapel there may have been a dozen or fifteen people. I had heard of the Primitive Methodists, how they sang so loudly that they made people’s heads ache; but that did not matter to me. I wanted to know how I might be saved, and if they could tell me that, I did not care how much they made my head ache. The minister did not come that morning; he was snowed up, I suppose. At last, a very thin-looking man, a shoemaker, or tailor, or something of that sort, went up into the pulpit to preach. Now, it is well that preachers should be instructed; but this man was really stupid. He was obliged to stick to his text, for the simple reason that he had little else to say. The text was, “Look unto Me, and be ye saved, all the ends of the earth.” 

The simple gospel, simply applied
‘He did not even pronounce the words rightly, but that did not matter. There was, I thought, a glimpse of hope for me in that text. The preacher began thus: “My dear friends, this is a very simple text indeed. It says, ‘Look.’ Now lookin’ don’t take a deal of pains. It ain’t liftin’ your foot or your finger; it is just, ‘Look.’ Well, a man needn’t go to College to learn to look. You may be the biggest fool, and yet you can look. A man needn’t be worth a thousand a year to be able to look. Anyone can look; even a child can look. But then the text says, ‘ Look unto Me.’ Ay!” said he, in broad Essex, “many on ye are lookin’ to yourselves, but it’s no use lookin’ there. You’ll never find any comfort in yourselves. Some look to God the Father. No, look to Him by-and-by. Jesus Christ says, ‘Look unto Me.’ Some on ye say, ‘We must wait for the Spirit’s workin’.’ You have no business with that just now. Look to Christ. The text says, ‘ Look unto Me.’”
Then the good man followed up his text in this way: “I am sweatin’ great drops of blood. Look unto Me; I am hangin’ on the cross. Look unto Me; I am dead and buried. Look unto Me; I rise again. Look unto Me; I ascend to Heaven. Look unto Me; I am sittin’ at the Father’s right hand. O poor sinner, look unto Me! Look unto Me.”

Artillery St Chapel in CHS’s autobiography


A pointed application!
‘When he had gone to about that length, and managed to spin out ten minutes or so, he was at the end of his tether. Then he looked at me under the gallery, and I daresay, with so few present, he knew me to be a stranger. Just fixing his eyes on me, as if he knew all my heart, he said, “Young man, you look very miserable.” Well, I did; but I had not been accustomed to have remarks made from the pulpit on my personal appearance before. However, it was a good blow, struck right home. He continued, “and you always will be miserable — miserable in life, and miserable in death, — if you don’t obey my text; but if you obey now, this moment, you will be saved.” Then, lifting up his hands, he shouted, as only a Primitive Methodist could do, “Young man, look to Jesus Christ. Look! Look! Look! You have nothin’ to do but to look and live.” 

Artillery St Chapel as it is today (pic:Google)


I looked until I could almost have looked my eyes away!
‘I saw at once the way of salvation. I know not what else he said, — I did not take much notice of it, — I was so possessed with that one thought. Like as when the brazen serpent was lifted up, the people only looked and were healed, so it was with me. I had been waiting to do fifty things, but when I heard that word, “Look ” what a charming word it seemed to me! Oh! I looked until I could almost have looked my eyes away. There and then the cloud was gone, the darkness had rolled away, and that moment I saw the sun ; and I could have risen that instant, and sung with the most enthusiastic of them, of the precious blood of Christ, and the simple faith which looks alone to Him. Oh, that somebody had told me this before, “Trust Christ, and you shall be saved.” 

Joy unspeakable and full of glory!
‘I may be singular in this confession, but I make it, and know it to be the truth. Since that dear hour when my soul cast itself on Jesus, I have found solid joy and peace ; but before that, all those supposed gaieties of early youth, all the imagined ease and joy of boyhood, were but vanity and vexation of spirit to me. That happy day, when I found the Saviour, and learned to cling to His dear feet, was a day never to be forgotten by me. An obscure child, unknown, unheard of, I listened to the Word of God ; and that precious text led me to the cross of Christ. I can testify that the joy of that day was utterly indescribable. I could have leaped, I could have danced; there was no expression, however fanatical, which would have been out of keeping with the joy of my spirit at that hour. Many days of Christian experience have passed since then, but there has never been one which has had the full exhilaration, the sparkling delight which that first day had. I thought I could have sprung from the seat on which I sat, and have called out with the wildest of those Methodist brethren who were present, ‘I am forgiven! I am forgiven!’ … I thought I could dance all the way home.’ [ii]

More next time…
To read the first article in this series on CH Spurgeon click here
To read Spurgeon speak of the wonder and romance of conversion click here

[i] The Autobiography of Charles H Spurgeon, Vol 1. (1897) London: Passmore and Alabaster, p. 92-93
[ii] ibid p.105-108

©2019 Lex Loizides / Church History Review

Brian Houston’s Live, Love, Lead – a review

Live, Love, Lead by Brian Houston

My first visit to Hillsong Church
A few years ago I was preaching in London. Three congregations came together in one venue (a slightly rundown-looking school hall), and we had a wonderful time. Several people testified of healing, and at least one person responded to the call to start following Jesus. The worship band were a bit thin on the ground though, just two acoustic guitarists, so it felt a little awkward. When I asked the reason why they couldn’t gather a full band the answer was straight-forward: it was a Bank Holiday Weekend. Fair enough.
That afternoon I met with two friends who are pastors in London and we jumped on the tube to go and check out the evening service of Hillsong Church. On the way there we had the kind of conversations pastors have all the time. Neither of them had ‘lost’ anyone to Hillsong but they had both had people join them who had attended Hillsong for a season and for a couple of reasons had decided to join a more local church. The reasons weren’t bad: they found making friends difficult in the relatively large Hillsong context, they preferred a more congregational ‘feel’ to the Sunday experience, rather than the strong ‘performance’ dynamic etc.
What was waiting for us – and for me in particular – was a real surprise. Hillsong London was then about 2500-strong and meeting in the Mermaid Theatre (I think) in the City itself. The first thing I noticed was that, in radical contrast to the school hall experience of the morning, Hillsong had completely ‘owned’ the space. Visually I was more aware that this was Hillsong Church than that it was a rented theatre. There was no moment when I said, ‘Oh look! Michael MacIntyre is playing here next week!’ or, ‘Look at these exciting stills from We Will Rock You.’

Thoughtful hospitality
We arrived as the meeting began and were enthusiastically greeted and guided towards the double-doors of the auditorium. Once there we were handed on to a well-informed usher who told us that there weren’t three seats available together but they could seat us towards the front in different rows but we’d be reasonably close. Would that be OK? We nodded and obediently followed. 

Focussed worship
There was absolutely no sign of a Bank Holiday Weekend at Hillsong London. There was a full, well-rehearsed and (therefore) confident band, perfectly mixed, with each band-member and singer fully engaged in the exuberant act of joyfully worshipping God. Even during the first song the energy levels were high and seemed completely authentic. By the second song we were at the kind of full-throated worship that we usually experienced on the final night of some of our conferences. That thought ran through my head and, as I looked around at the congregation packed into that theatre, passionately worshipping Jesus, I couldn’t help myself, and began to weep and pray. ‘Oh God! Please give us the thousands! Please God, here in London, please give us the thousands! Here in England, please God, turn the hearts of thousands to You.’ Selah.
After what I was told was 18 minutes of worship, the rest of the service (admittedly fairly formulaic – cf. liturgical – but hey, it was working) continued. Second thought: I’d rather have 18 minutes of God-saturated, glory-filled worship than 30 or 40 minutes of tentative, not-quite-sure-what’s-happening-next worship. One last thought: it was a guest speaker but he preached from the text on the importance of relationship-building and making friends in the context of a growing church community. Bang on.

A faith-filled shot in the arm
So when my American son-in-law gave me Live, Love, Lead by Brian Houston, Hillsong’s Kiwi founder, I was intrigued and looking forward to reading it.
Confession: I read this book over a two-year period, but I’ll tell you why. It’s a mixture of the Houston/Hillsong story and faith-building positivity, scripturally based and expansive. You’re looking forward with expectation and faith in God. So my practice was to read a paragraph, or two at the most, as the final thing I did before Jo and I set off to lead the Sunday services at Jubilee Community Church in Kloof St, Cape Town. And pretty much each time I took a bite out of Houston’s positive prose it reminded me to be people-focussed, encouraging, believing God to help folk in their trials, trusting God for great things to happen in the services, that the various leaders would be genuinely blessed, and just refreshing my memory to look to God and enjoy the moment. Even when he’s describing some of the almost overwhelming challenges that he’s faced in leadership Houston meets the challenge with a robust, God-centred faith. Here’s a very short example:

‘It’s believing that God can cause things to work together for good as we simply live our lives loving him, live our lives called according to his purpose – this is what transforms us. Maybe I’m just a positive person by nature, but I expect good things each day of the year…I believe without a doubt that every single moment of every single day…can reveal God’s goodness – in my life and yours.’

It’s not a theological treatise on prayer or providence, and it’s not trying to be, but if you’re looking for the occasional shot in the arm of encouragement, and wisdom for life, as you head in to work or to worship, this may be the book you’re looking for.

Live, Love, Lead by Brian Houston is published by FaithWords, New York

©2019 Lex Loizides / Church History Review

Conviction of Sin – the teenage angst of CH Spurgeon

The Expulsion of Adam and Eve from the Garden by Massacio

An old-fashioned doctrine
‘Conviction of sin’ can be described as the personal distress and guilt that accompanies the realisation that you are a sinner and that your specific sins have offended God; that you yourself have offended God Himself and that there is a serious problem between you. You may never have felt this before but suddenly, through some kind of exposure to the Bible, or to Christian teaching, or the Ten Commandments, you are aware of a vast difference between your behaviour and the purity of God’s moral character and demands. And all of this is now revealed. If you move towards it the scene gets darker. Surely it would be better to try and ignore it all? And even though Christians assure you that genuine freedom is possible in Christ, the difficulty of pressing through ‘conviction of sin’ is that conversion to Christ – a full surrendering of sin, life, and all at the foot of the cross – is the only solution. And who could ever really do that? ‘With man it is impossible.’ (Mark 10.27)

The great 19th Century Baptist preacher CH Spurgeon grew up surrounded by the Bible. Both his grandfather and father were pastors. But he was not converted until he was fifteen. And his teenage years were filled with self-righteousness, guilt, and discomfort. The spiritual question was how to get right with God. And the spiritual problem was his inability to apply the gospel to his own heart and life – how to find forgiveness for sin, how to find relief from guilt.

The problem of the Law and sin
Spurgeon wrote, ‘One of the things that shut me up dreadfully was, when I knew the spirituality of the law…Those words spoken by the Lord to the prophet Ezekiel came to my mind : “If he trust to his own righteousness, and commit iniquity, all his righteousnesses shall not be remembered ; but for his iniquity that he hath committed, he shall die for it.” So I saw that I was, indeed, “kept under the law.” I had hoped to escape this way, or that way, or some other way. Was I not “christened” when I was a child? Had I not been taken to a place of worship? Had I not been brought up to say my prayers regularly? Had I not been an honest, upright, moral youth?  Was all this nothing? “Nothing,” said the law, as it drew its sword of fire : “Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them.” So there was no rest for my spirit, nay, not even for a moment. What was I to do? …

I do not say that all have felt the apprehension of coming judgment as I did; but this is how it came to me. I knew that I was guilty, I knew that I had offended God, I knew that I had transgressed against light and knowledge, and I did not know when God might call me to account ; but I did know this, when I awoke in the morning, the first thought I had was that I had to deal with a justly-angry God, who might suddenly require my soul of me. Often, during the day, when I had a little time for quiet meditation, a great depression of spirit would come upon me because I felt that sin –  sin – SIN had outlawed me from my God.’

The threats were in capitals and the promises in small-print
‘If anyone had asked me what would become of me, I must have answered, “I am going down to the pit.” If anyone had entreated me to hope that mercy might come to me, I should have refused to entertain such a hope. … When I was for many a month in this state, I used to read the Bible through, and the threatenings were all printed in capitals, but the promises were in such small type I could not for a long time make them out ; and when I did read them, I did not believe they were mine ; but the threatenings were all my own.’ 

Our inability and our desire
Inevitably one of the shocks to Spurgeon was that, according to the Bible, there was nothing he could do to earn his way to forgiveness. He continues,
‘Before I came to Christ, I said to myself. “It surely cannot be that, if I believe in Jesus, just as I am, I shall be saved? I must feel something; I must do something.” I could pour scorn upon myself to think of some of the good resolutions I made! I blew them up, like children with their pipes and their soap, and fine bubbles they were, reflecting all the colours of the rainbow! But a touch, and they dissolved. They were good for nothing, – poor stuff to build eternal hopes upon. … Oh, the many times that I have wished the preacher would tell me something to do that I might be saved! Gladly would I have done it, if it had been possible. If he had said, “Take off your shoes and stockings, and run to John o’ Groat’s,” I would not even have gone home first, but would have started off that very night, that I might win salvation. How often have I thought that, if he had said, “Bare your back to the scourge, and take fifty lashes” I would have said, “Here I am! Come along with your whip, and beat as hard as you please, so long as I can obtain peace and rest, and get rid of my sin.” Yet that simplest of all matters – believing in Christ crucified, accepting His finished salvation, being nothing, and letting Him be everything, doing nothing but trusting to what He has done, – I could not get a hold of it.’ [i]

There is an answer for guilt, and shame, and, as he says here, it is found in the cross of Jesus Christ. Next time we’ll see how, through a humble but punchy gospel preacher, Spurgeon finally did ‘get a hold of it’ and go on to become one of Christendom’s greatest preachers.

[i] All quotes from The Autobiography of Charles H Spurgeon, Vol 1. (1897) London: Passmore and Alabaster, p.83-90

To read the first article in this series on CH Spurgeon click here
To read how CH Spurgeon was finally converted click here

©2019 Lex Loizides / Church History Review

Karl Marx. A Review.

Karl Marx

I first picked up The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels when I was sixteen. Of course, I didn’t feel like a precocious sixteen-year-old then. I felt like a free-thinking young intellectual discovering poetry and politics, and exploring the vast literary landscape with a hunger and delight that, frankly, I wish I could maintain now. Like many significant works of literature this little book had its own killer line. Not quite the first line, but certainly as memorable as the best of them. It read:  ‘The history of all societies is a history of class struggle.’ I read on eagerly. Thus The Communist Manifesto became my first conscious encounter with what I later learned was a ‘worldview’ and it was exhilarating to read something that claimed to know what was really going on in the world.

My teenage romance with Marxism didn’t last too long and suffered numerous blows as I discovered not its power to transform but, disappointingly, its consistent failure. And when I later became president of the Students’ Union at a small college in Sussex I was appalled at the sanctimonious reverence Marx was paid. The primary example of this happened not at the National Conference but at an (ironically) exclusive and somewhat secretive gathering of three Students’ Union presidents at Sussex University. Our host, the Sussex Uni president, asked us to be seated. He then proceeded to unveil, by pulling down on a little fluffy cord, a red velvet curtain, behind which were revealed portraits first of Marx, then Lenin, and finally the then General Secretary of the Soviet Union, Yuri Andropov. Once this ceremony was complete he opened the meeting. It was both strangely religious and hopelessly sad.

But that kind of obsequious nonsense was the least of it. The philosophy itself was problematic. Apart from his impressive, often accurate view of the past, Marx’s vision for future revolution and collective ownership had already obviously failed in the terrifyingly authoritarian regimes that claimed him as their founder. Even George Orwell said – somewhere in Homage to Catalonia – that he only saw communism work once, and then only for about three weeks, after which the usual egotistical impulse for status reasserted itself. One set of status/power/money lovers had been replaced by another set who soon began to act like those they replaced.

Marx, A Very Short Introduction

The Significance of Marx
Marx and Engels felt they had discovered a scientific assessment of social progress akin to Darwin’s theory of evolution. The parallel is oddly appropriate for many Christians: we may agree with much of what both Darwin and Marx observed, but may also have considerable doubts about the projections they made based on the observation.
And so to Peter Singer’s highly readable, Marx, A Very Short Introduction. He asks, ‘Can anyone now think about society without reference to Marx’s insights into the links between economic and intellectual life? Marx’s ideas brought about modern sociology, transformed the study of history, and profoundly affected philosophy, literature, and the arts. In this sense of the term – admittedly a very loose sense – we are all Marxists now.’ (3)

Hegel, History, and God
There were a number of points at which the thinking of others encouraged Marx to see religion as ultimately negative (for Marx this inevitably meant Christianity). In describing Hegel and the young Hegelians who influenced Marx Singer writes, ‘The goal of history became the liberation of humanity; but this could not be achieved until the religious illusion had been overcome.’ (22) Of course! Singer has unintentionally sent us back to a conversation in Eden in Genesis 3. And later, ‘theology is a kind of misdirected anthropology. What we believe of God is really true of ourselves. Thus humanity can regain its essence, which in religion it has lost.’ (23) And in an inevitable statement of absolute naturalism, ‘Thought does not precede existence, existence precedes thought.’ (24) Christians love the fact that in the beginning was thought and word, and all creation came into existence as a result of thought and word. But Marx only saw the way religion created compliance rather than progress. 

Economic Injustice and its Cure
When Marx came on to his views of economic injustice we find some of his arguments compelling but his solutions naive. When pointing out that driving wages down to as close as is necessary to merely keep workers alive, while keeping for themselves a significant amount of the value the workers create, Marx is highlighting a genuine manipulation of human resources. (33) Sure. We need just laws, and we ought to have them. But Marx asserted ‘the solution is the abolition of wages, alienated labour, and private property in one blow. In a word, communism.’ (36) and claimed, ‘Communism…is the genuine resolution of the antagonism between man and nature and between man and man…It is the riddle of history solved and knows itself as this solution.’ Singer adds, ‘One might expect that Marx would go on to explain in some detail what communism would be like. He does not – in fact nowhere in his writings does he give more than sketchy suggestions on this subject.’ (37)

Marx and Engels consistently preached for a kind of millennial era of liberation, freedom from oppression, and peace among men. In one sense, the very best motivations of the communist vision are an echo of genuine Christianity, but with man, not God, at the centre. In fact it’s difficult to imagine the birth of Marxist philosophy in any but a Christian cultural environment, and a muscular 19th century Christianity at that. ‘From each according to his ability, to each according to his need,’ could have been bellowed out by William Booth and the Salvation Army; could, in fact, have been written by Luke in the Book of Acts (see Acts 2.45 [i], and 4.34 [ii]).
Marx was also echoing a widely held Christian sentiment when he asserted that history has a definite goal; that of humanity reaching its greatest potential in an era of liberation and freedom. He probably didn’t realise how much a view of God’s sovereignty, of providence, and the millennial hope he carried in his thinking about the future. Singer brings us up to post-Christian speed: ‘Few historians…now see any goal in history. They do not explain history as the necessary path to anywhere. They explain it by showing how one set of events brought about another.’ (57)

Revolution and Transformation
Marx believed that Capitalism would force its own failure as workers would realise their exploitation, rise up, and redistribute wealth on a fair and equal basis. Private property would be abolished. The State would draw the allegiance of all men and the common good would be the goal of all. Absolutely wishful thinking. Singer: ‘According to Marx’s view of history, as the economic basis of society alters, so all consciousness alters. Greed, egoism, and envy are not ingrained forever in the character of human beings. They would disappear in a society in which private property and private means of production were replaced with communal property and socially organized means of production. We would lose our preoccupation with  our private interests. Citizens of the new society would find their own happiness in working for the good of all. (81) Surely only the most inexperienced revolutionary could believe that? ‘It has been said that later in life Marx developed a less Utopian view of communism, but it is difficult to find much evidence of this.’ (83)
His view was so utopian in fact that he believed communism would become fully international in its reach, and therefore single nation-states would cease to exist, thus eradicating the impulse for war between nations. Armed forces would become a thing of the past. Cue not-the-only-dreamer, John Lennon. Actually though, while it’s certainly not imaginable now, it is nevertheless a hope that’s deeply embedded in the human psyche (we’re made in the image of God after all) and it echoes an idea worked out in Christian eschatology.

How do we assess Marx’s philosophy?
Singer: ‘More than a century after Marx made these predictions, most of them are so plainly mistaken that one can only wonder why anyone sympathetic to Marx would attempt to argue that his greatness lies in the scientific aspects of his work. Judged by the standards of Marx’s time, the gap between rich and poor has narrowed dramatically throughout the industrialized world…Real wages have risen. Factory workers today earn considerably more than they need in order to remain alive and reproducing…Capitalism has gone through several crises, but nowhere has it collapsed as a result of its alleged internal contradictions. Proletarian revolutions have broken out in the less developed nations [Marx predicted it would happen in the more developed ones]. (88) He supposed ‘that real wages would remain around subsistence level; in fact the increase in productivity has allowed real wages to rise.’ (91) The ‘conception of freedom Marx espoused contains within it a difficulty Marx never sufficiently appreciated, a difficulty which can be linked with the tragic mutation of Marx’s views into a prop for murderously authoritarian regimes. This is the problem of obtaining the co-operation of each individual in the joint endeavour of controlling our society.’ (92)  ‘Marx never intended a communist society to force the individual to work against his or her own interests for the collective good.’ (97)

Marx’s view of human nature was hopelessly optimistic. The economic injustices he identified were not simply the result of capitalist systems (though those systems enabled them) but of fallen human nature, sinful nature. And even though today we can see improvement to human rights and progress in many areas, enacted in many laws, the fundamental problem of human sin is still wildly underestimated. This doesn’t let ‘capitalism’ off the hook of course, let alone individuals greedy for their own advancement at the expense of others. In fact, those Christian leaders and pastors living in countries with ever-widening gaps between rich and poor need to develop a healthy desire and determination to work for a more just society. Nevertheless, the communism that developed in the twentieth century was never the utopia Marx dreamt of; that dreamt-of equality only ever appeared in propaganda films. Equally unconvincing are the arguments that true Marxism has never been properly tried. The reason it never lasts longer than a few weeks is because the philosophy radically over-estimates the goodness of human nature. What is needed is a philosophy that (goes beyond philosophy and) gets into the heart and changes human nature, that leads to repentance from sin and faith in Christ, and produces an unwavering resolve for social justice. To put it in the words of the most famous prayer, ‘Thy Kingdom come, Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven.’ 

Marx, A Very Short Introduction is by Peter Singer and published by the Oxford University Press.

Is Singer too hard on Marx? Too soft? How does the gospel address the injustices Marx raised? Comment below.

[i] Acts 2.45 ‘and they began selling their property and possessions and were sharing them with all, as anyone might have need.’
[ii] Acts 4.34 ‘there was not a needy person among them, for all who were owners of land or houses would sell them and bring the proceeds of the sales.’

© 2019 Lex Loizides / Church History Review

The Irresistible Power of a Praying Mother


A Mother’s Influence

There were numerous influences in young CH Spurgeon’s life: he lived for a season with his grandfather, an Independent Pastor who faithfully preached the gospel; his father who himself was a pastor; a school cook, from whom he first heard unashamed confidence in the sovereignty of God, and the doctrines of grace; and the various teachers who impressed upon him the importance of the Bible. But there was a very special place reserved for the most influential spiritual voice during his childhood and teenage years – his mother, Eliza Spurgeon. 

Christian mothers should take heart from Spurgeon’s story and never give up praying for their children. Spurgeon describes more than prayer, as his mother was also instructing her children from the text of Scripture. Spurgeon mentions four key practices:

1. Sincere, heartfelt prayer, in private as well as with her children.
2. Time with the Bible, not only a Bible storybook, but actually reading a ‘grown-up’ Bible verse by verse.
3. This was followed by relevant application to each child of the verses that they read together.
4. In addition to that, she also read from the most relevant evangelistic books available. One of them was Joseph Alleine’s Alarm Call to the Unconverted – a passionate appeal (Spurgeon uses the word ‘pleading’) for those not yet right with God to consider their practices and beliefs.

‘I cannot tell how much I owe to…my good mother.’
Maybe there are some clues and keys in Spurgeon’s experience that will encourage us to be more confident in teaching our children so that they can make a well informed decision about their own faith and future. CHS writes:
‘I was privileged with godly parents…and taught the way of God from my youth up. There came a time when the solemnities of eternity pressed upon me for a decision. … When I was under concern of soul, the last persons I should have elected to speak to upon religion would have been my parents, not through want of love to them, nor absence of love on their part; but so it was. A strange feeling of diffidence pervades a seeking soul, and drives it from its friends. Yet I cannot tell how much I owe to the solemn words of my good mother. It was the custom, on Sunday evenings, while we were yet little children, for her to stay at home with us, and then we sat round the table, and read verse by verse, and she explained the Scripture to us. After that was done, then came the time of pleading; there was a little piece of Alleine’s Alarm, or of Baxter’s Call to the Unconverted, and this was read with pointed observations made to each of us as we sat round the table; and the question was asked, how long it would be before we would think about our state, how long before we would seek the Lord.’

A Mother’s Prayer
‘Then came a mother’s prayer, and some of the words of that prayer we shall never forget, even when our hair is grey. I remember, on one occasion her praying thus: ‘Now, Lord, if my children go on in their sins, it will not be from ignorance that they perish, and my soul must bear a swift witness against them at the day of judgment if they lay not hold of Christ.’ That thought of a mother’s bearing swift witness against me, pierced my conscience, and stirred my heart. …
I am sure that, in my early youth, no teaching ever made such an impression upon my mind as the instruction of my mother; neither can I conceive that, to any child, there can be one who will have such influence over the young heart as the mother who has so tenderly cared for her offspring. A man with a soul so dead as not to be moved by the sacred name of “mother” is creation’s blot. Never could it be possible for any man to estimate what he owes to a godly mother. Certainly I have not the powers of speech with which to set forth my valuation of the choice blessing which the Lord bestowed on me in making me the son of one who prayed for me, and prayed with me. How can I ever forget her tearful eye when she warned me to escape from the wrath to come.
I thought her lips right eloquent; others might not think so, but they certainly were eloquent to me. How can I ever forget when she bowed her knee, and with her arms about my neck, prayed, “Oh, that my son might live before Thee!” Nor can her frown be effaced from my memory,—that solemn, loving frown, when she rebuked my budding iniquities; and her smiles have never faded from my recollection,—the beaming of her countenance when she rejoiced to see some good thing in me towards the Lord God of Israel.’’

Abundant answers to Prayer
Of course, those of us who have benefited from the ministry of CH Spurgeon are still enjoying the results of his mother’s prayers. And she was, herself, thrilled at the incredible fruit that Charles saw through his work. Long after his preaching and church-planting ministry was established he recalled a conversation with his mother about her prayers:
‘My mother said to me, one day, “Ah, Charles! I often prayed to the Lord to make you a Christian, but I never asked that you might become a Baptist.” I could not resist the temptation to reply, “Ah, mother! The Lord has answered your prayer with His usual bounty, and given you exceeding abundantly above what you asked or thought.”‘[i]
More next time…

[i] The Autobiography of Charles H Spurgeon, Vol 1. (1897) London: Passmore and Alabaster, p.67-69

To read the first article in this series on CH Spurgeon click here
To read how Spurgeon was ‘convicted of sin’ click here

©2019 Lex Loizides / Church History Review

CH Spurgeon – strong meat from a humble cook

Young CH Spurgeon
Young CH Spurgeon

Strong Meat from the Cook [i]
The first lessons I ever had in theology were from an old cook [Mary King] in the school at Newmarket where I was an usher [a kind of assistant-tutor]. She was a good old soul, and used to read The Gospel Standard. She liked something very sweet indeed, good strong Calvinistic doctrine, but she lived strongly as well as fed strongly.
Many a time we have gone over the covenant of grace together, and talked of the personal election of the saints, their union to Christ, their final perseverance, and what vital godliness meant, and I do believe that I learnt more from her than I should have learned from any six doctors of divinity of the sort we have nowadays.
There are some Christian people who taste, and see, and enjoy religion in their own souls, and who get at a deeper knowledge of it than books can ever give them, though they should search all their days. The cook at Newmarket was a godly experienced woman, from whom I learned far more than I did from the minister of the chapel we attended.
I asked her once, “Why do you go to such a place.” She replied, “Well, there is no other place of worship to which I can go.” I said, “But it must be better to stay at home than to hear such stuff.” “Perhaps so,” she answered “but I like to go out to worship even if I get nothing by going. You see a hen sometimes scratching all over a heap of rubbish to try to find some corn; she does not get any, but it shows that she is looking for it, and using the means to get it, and then, too, the exercise warms her.” So the old lady said that scratching over the poor sermons she heard was a blessing to her because it exercised her spiritual faculties and warmed her spirit.
On another occasion I told her that I had not found a crumb in the whole sermon, and asked how she had fared. “Oh!” she answered, “I got on better tonight, for to all the preacher said, I just put in a not, and that turned his talk into real gospel.” 

A former student remembers the fifteen year-old Spurgeon
A fellow assistant-tutor at the small ‘school’, later Prof JD Everett, of Queen’s College, Belfast, remembered Spurgeon with affection:
“In the summer of 1849, when I was not quite eighteen, I went to Newmarket to assist in a school… I was left for a week or so as the sole assistant. I was then relieved of part of my duty by a lad of fifteen, who came as an articled pupil. This was Charles H. Spurgeon, and for the next three months we shared the work between us. We boarded in the house, occupied the same bedroom, took our walks together, discussed our common grievances, and were the best of friends.
He was a keen observer of men and manners, and very shrewd in his judgments. He enjoyed a joke, but was earnest, hard-working, and strictly conscientious. … He was a delightful companion, cheerful and sympathetic ; a good listener as well as a good talker. And he was not cast in a common conventional mould, but had a strong character of his own.”

CHS willing to learn from the most humble
“As to the early history of his theological views, I can add something to what has been already published. In Mr. Swindell’s household there was a faithful old servant,—a big, sturdy woman, who was well known to me and all the inmates as ‘cook.’ She was a woman of strong religious feelings, and a devout Calvinist. Spurgeon, when under deep religious conviction, had conversed with her, and been deeply impressed with her views of Divine truth. He explained this to me, and told me, in his own terse fashion, that it was ‘cook’ who had taught him his theology. … It is no discredit to the memory of a great man that he was willing to learn from the humblest sources.”
When the above article appeared in print, Mr. Robert Mattingly, of Great Cornard, Sudbury, wrote to the same paper: “About twenty-five years ago, I became acquainted with the [the cook], Mary King by name. She was then living in cottage lodgings, facing St. Margaret’s Church, Ipswich, and was a member of the Bethesda Strict Baptist Church, close by. She was a staunch Calvinist, logical, clear-headed, and had a wonderful knowledge of the Bible.
I have often heard from her lips the account of her [conversations] with the youthful Spurgeon, of which she was naturally not a little proud, as he had then attained the height of his marvellous popularity.”

Spurgeon hears of Mary King’s financial troubles and supports her

“During my acquaintance with her, I learned that she had outlived all, or nearly all, of a small income (I do not remember from what source). I wrote to Mr. Spurgeon, acquainting him with the facts, and received from him a prompt reply, thanking me for my letter, sending a hearty greeting to his old friend, and with characteristic generosity he enclosed a cheque for £5, with a request that I would minister to her immediate necessities, pay her 5s. a week, and generally use my discretion in dispensing the amount in his behalf. This I did, and reported to Mr. Spurgeon from time to time, always receiving a fresh cheque when the fund in hand became exhausted, and this was continued until her death about three years later.”[ii]

For the first in this series on CH Spurgeon click here

To read how Spurgeon’s mother’s prayers affected him click here

[i] See Heb 5.12, and 1 Cor 3.2. The King James has ‘strong meat’, although the newer versions tend to have ‘solid food’.
[ii] The Autobiography of Charles H Spurgeon, Vol 1. (1897 London: Passmore and Alabaster) p.53-55

© 2019 Lex Loizides / Church History Review